Sacroiliac Joint Sprain and Dysfunction
There are two Sacroiliac (SI) joints. They connect both sides of the sacrum to the iliac part of the pelvic bones, forming the ring of the pelvis. The sacrum is usually formed by five vertebrae fused together (though it can be four or six). The SI joints are big and very strong and are synovial (fluid filled) joints. They are held together by thick and strong ligaments. They are subjected to a small rocking movement in opposite directions to each other when walking. They are subjected to twisting forces when the spine twists. They are under compressive forces when standing or walking, and extreme forces when landing after a jump. The SI joints are ‘shock absorbers’, and transfer forces from the axial skeleton to the legs, and from the legs to the axial skeleton. In women, a large movement of the SI joints are needed to facilitate childbirth. No single muscle crosses the joints and moves the joints as a ‘prime mover’; instead, the joints are moved as a result of complex musculoskeletal movements such as walking.
If you are looking to do exercises for sacroiliac joint pain then your first focus should be to stabilize the pelvis including the sacrum in proper alignment. DO NOT do SI joint exercises in poor pelvic alignment, you will only stabilize the faulty alignment and cause more problems! See your osteopath first!
1) Learn neutral spine:Neutral Spine is the healthiest and most stable position for the spine and pelvis taking in to account the natural curvature of the spine.
- Standing: Back up against a wall with your buttocks and shoulder blades leaning into the wall. Notice whether your lower back is against the wall or if there is an excessive arch there. The latter is more common.To achieve neutral keep the buttocks and shoulders against the wall and then draw the middle part of your back into the wall. You should feel the abdominal muscles engage and/or the ribs drawing in.
- Lying: Lying on a mat with your knees bent and feet hip width apart, arms at your side. Begin by releasing your tailbone down creating an arc in the lower back, move up into the mid back and draw it down without flattening the spine. The shoulder blades are down and heavy and the back of the neck is long, do this by drawing your chin down towards your chest leaving the size of a fist space there.
- Sitting: When sitting in a chair press your bottom right up against the back of the chair then stack the rest of the spine over it. Your collarbone is over your hip bones and your breastbone is right above the pubic bone. Navel drawn in gently.Proper posture is the best way to reduce tension from sitting at work all day, on computers, driving, etc.
2) Pelvic Stabilization Exercises for Sacroiliac Joint Pain:
- Wall squats Position: Standing in neutral against the wall with your feet the length of your thighs away from the wall.Action: Bend your knees no lower than a 90 degree angle keeping your weight in the heels evenly for both feet. Kneecaps should line up with the second toe in each foot. Repeat for 8-12 repetitions. Do 2-3 sets every other day. Cues: Place hands on hip bones and make sure they stay level as you bend and lift, also keep the buttocks, shoulder blades, and mid part of the back against the wall throughout the exercise.
- Pelvic clocks
Position: Lying on the floor with neutral spine and knees bent.Action:
Imagine your pelvis as a clock. 12 o'clock is at your navel, 6 is at
your pubic or tailbone, 3 and 9 are the hip bones. Now imagine there is
water in that clock or bowl and you are going to empty from 12 o'clock
around clockwise and then counterclockwise feeling each number on the
clock working. Cues: Keep the knees still you are just mobilizing the
- Diaphragmatic Breathing Position: Lying in neutral spine. Action: Without changing the position of your spine inhale deeply through the nose filling up or expanding into the ribs and upper back, then exhale through your mouth expelling the air again without changing the spine. On the exhale feel all the air leave your body feeling the muscles tighten around the waist as your abdomen flattens.
3) Strengthening Exercises for Sacroiliac Joint Pain: Once you have a stable and aligned pelvis you can begin mobilizing exercises to continue strengthening.
- Leg Circles. Position: Lying on the floor with one leg extended along the mat and the other at a 90 degree angle to the floor and a neutral spine.Action: Keeping the pelvis still circle the thigh (leg) in the hip socket 6 times each direction. Switch legs. Cues: Focus on keeping the torso and leg on the mat very still as you freely circle the leg in the air.
- Bridges. Position: Lying in
neutral with knees bent arms at your side.Action: Inhale to prepare and
exhale as you press into your heels lifting the pelvis up in neutral
until weight is between shoulder blades not in the neck. Inhale hold
then exhale to bring the tailbone and ribs down all at one time. Cues:
Focus on the navel drawn in to lift the pubic bone up to the ceiling.
Weight even in the feet. Rotation and side bending exercises can be
added as you are symptom free in neutral spine.
4) Stretching Exercises for Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction.
main objective of exercises for sciatic pain from sacroiliac joint
dysfunction is to restore the range of motion in this joint which can be
limited if the joint is inflamed. Performing range of motion exercises
directed at the SI joint can often restore normal movement and alleviate
the irritation of the sciatic nerve. Three helpful exercises are:
knee to chest stretch. Pull one knee up to the chest at a time, gently
pumping the knee three to four times at the top of the range of motion.
Do 10 repetitions for each leg.
- Press-up. From the prone position, press up on the hands while the pelvis remains in contact with the floor. Keep the lower back and buttocks relaxed for a gentle stretch. Hold the press- up position initially for five seconds, and gradually work up to 30 seconds per repetition. Aim to complete 10 repetitions.
- Lumbar rotation—non-weight bearing. Starting by lying on the back with both knees bent, keep the feet flat on the floor while rocking the knees from side to side. The thighs should rub together and the knees will not move very far. The lower spine should remain fairly still. Rock the knees for 30 seconds.