Most people can easily learn to hit the shuttlecock over the net. However, at the competitive levels a great deal of cardiovascular conditioning and muscular endurance are needed. Great agility, quickness, and reaction are essential to be successful in badminton as well. Lower body strength and endurance are important to the badminton player. A strong swing requires good upper body strength, as well. Core strength and endurance help with balance which improves overall agility.
Playing badminton requires the use of the following major
• The muscles of the lower leg; the gastrocnemius, the
soleus and the anterior tibialis.
• The muscles of the upper legs and hips; the gluteals, the hamstrings, and the quadriceps.
• The muscles of the hip; the gluteals, the adductors and abductors, and the hip flexor.
• The muscles of the shoulder girdle; the latissimus dorsi, the teres major, the pectorals, and the deltoids.
• The core muscles; the rectus abdominus, obliques, and the
• The muscles of the forearm and upper arm; the wrist
flexors and extensors, the biceps and the triceps.
A conditioning program that includes an overall cardiovascular program, a solid strength component, and good flexibility training will keep the badminton player healthy and performing at his or her peak.
Most Common Badminton
Badminton is not a contact sport, but due to the fast pace it can result in traumatic injury. Ankle sprains, Achilles tendon strains, anterior cruciate ligament sprains, and rotator cuff injuries are all common among competitive badminton players.
• Ankle Sprains: The sudden change in direction, especially once a player becomes fatigued, can easily result in the ankle “rolling.” This rolling of the ankle causes tears in the ligaments that support the ankle. This results in pain and tenderness at the injury site, swelling, and difficulty bearing weight. A popping sensation may be felt with the injury, as well. Initially ice, immobilization, and compression may help reduce the discomfort, followed by osteopathy. An x-ray should be taken to rule out a fracture. Usual recovery time is about 4 to 6 weeks for a moderate sprain.
• Achilles Tendon Strain: The Achilles tendon connects the calf muscles to the heel bone (calcaneus.) When the calf muscle contracts forcefully this tendon is under a great deal of stress. If the muscle is tight or not properly warmed up, a tear may occur in the tendon. This is called a strain. The amount of the tendon involved in the tear will determine the severity of the injury. A complete tear (or rupture) will take much longer to heal and may require surgical intervention. Minor tears can be treated with osteopathy, rest, ice and NSAIDs. The low blood flow to tendons complicates the recovery and lengthens the process.
• Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Sprain: The anterior cruciate ligament is the main stabilizing ligament in the knee. When the foot is planted and the upper leg begins to rotate the ACL is put under tremendous stretch, and may result in a tear. This reduces the structural integrity of the knee and results in a great deal of pain. Immobilization, ice, and rest are keys to treating an ACL injury. In cases of complete rupture of the ligament, surgical intervention may be needed to reattach the ligament. This, of course, increases overall recovery time. The knee may be loose and lose some structural strength, requiring both osteopathy and exercises to get it back to pre-injury condition.
• Rotator Cuff Injuries: The swinging motion places the
shoulder in an exposed position and if the arm rotates out of the natural path
of movement the shoulder may be injured. The rotator cuff muscles are designed
to stabilize the shoulder and if they are stretched or torn due to an acute,
unnatural movement, they will not be able to provide that support. Acute injury
to the rotator cuff can be minor, a simple strain of the muscles, to severe,
with a complete rupture of the muscular structure. Chronic injury to the
rotator cuff muscles and tendons may also occur if improper body mechanics are
used in the swing repetitively. Rest, ice and NSAIDs is needed for acute
conditions, while osteopathy will be needed to help heal
both acute and chronic injuries.
Injury Prevention Strategies
Overall conditioning is essential to the badminton player to help reduce injuries on the court.
• Playing on well-manicured outdoor courts or indoor courts with well-maintained surfaces will reduce lower extremity injuries.
• Strong muscles, especially in the lower extremities, will prevent many injuries caused by the constant change in direction and explosive movements.
• Good endurance will help delay the onset of fatigue, which contributes to a high percentage of sports injuries.
• Quality equipment and body mechanics training will help prevent chronic injuries that develop due to misalignment issues.
• Proper warm-up and a good flexibility program will reduce injuries from tight and inflexible muscles.
Three Badminton Stretches
1. Rotating Wrist Stretch: Place one arm straight out in
front and parallel to the ground. Rotate your wrist down and outwards and then
use your other hand to further rotate your hand upwards.
2. Elbow-out Rotator Stretch: Stand with your hand behind the middle of your back and your elbow pointing out. Reach over with your other hand and gently pull your elbow forward.
3. Standing Toe-up Achilles Stretch: Stand upright and place the ball of your foot onto a step or raised object. Bend your knee and lean forward.